The three vaccines tested by Prime Minister Narendra Modi from Red Fort are undergoing trials at different stages in different centers of the country. Their initial results were quite promising. Their details are as follows.
Biotech / ICMR
Kovaxin, the country’s first indigenous Kovid-19 vaccine, has been launched by Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for human trials. Kovaxin vaccine falls under the category of inactivated vaccine. This type of vaccine deactivates the pathogens, causing no prolonged infection. Although some parts of the virus can be detected by the body’s immune system and can trigger the immune response. Once vaccinated, the body produces antibodies, which can fight the corona virus infection. Scientists have used a variant of SARS-COV-2 to develop the vaccine, which was isolated at Pune’s National Institute of Virology. The vaccine trial was mired in a controversy in June. At that time the Director General of ICMR, Dr. Balaram Bhargava had said that he was looking at the launch date around August 15. However, Bharat Biotech later said that the test would run for more than 15 months.
The Ahmedabad-based pharmaceutical company Zydus Cadila Vaccine Zykov-D is also undergoing a human clinical trial. The company says that the vaccine may be launched by next year. Such vaccines contain a genetically engineered plasmid. It is a small DNA molecule that can replicate independently. The DNA-based vaccine does not require any other variant of the SARS COV-2 virus. This makes the virus quite common.
Serum Institute of India
The Pune-based Serum Institute of India has obtained permission from the Drug Controller General of India to begin trials in India for the vaccine developed by Oxford University and Astra Janeca. The vaccine has already undergone Phase III trials in many parts of the world, including the US and Brazil. These trials will end in November. The vaccine contains a weak and non-replicating variant of the common virus affecting chimpanzee, which is designed to express the SARS-COV-2 spike protein. The spike protein of the corona virus allows it to enter human cells. The presence of this protein increases the immune response in the body. The company is working with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to accelerate vaccine production and is ready to supply it to low- and middle-income countries at low cost.